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Interventional Radiology Techniques

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by Dr. John Fondacaro, Diplomate ACVIM & Dr. Sean Hillock, Diplomate ACVIM Interventional Radiology Techniques (Offered at the Veterinary Medical Center of Long Island Internal Medicine Department)  Bronchoscopic intraluminal stents for tracheal collapse and other occlusive tracheal diseases. Urethral stents for obstructive urethral diseases. Transurethral submucosal collagen implantation. Since there is not an abundance of information about these procedures in the literature, the following general information will help you decide which patients may be possible candidates and allow you to adequately prepare owners prior to referral. Bronchoscopic intraluminal tracheal stents: Self-expanding…

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Cranial Curuciate Ligament Instability: Introducing the Tibial Tuberosity Advancement

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by Dr. Margret Puccio, DVM, Diplomate ACVS Cranial Curuciate Ligament Instability: Introducing the Tibial Tuberosity Advancement Cranial cruciate ligament injuries are one of the most common causes of acute and chronic lameness in dogs and are also seen as a cause of lameness in cats. Unstabilized cranial cruciate ligament tears place the patient at risk of meniscal damage and osteoarthritis of the stifle joint. It has been reported that up to 80% of patients will have concurrent meniscal tears and 40% of patients will rupture the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament…

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Genetic Testing in Veterinary Ophthalmology

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Genetic Testing in Veterinary Ophthalmology As discussed in an earlier article, the selective breeding of the canine has greatly diminished the genetic diversity within each specific breed.  In populations of low genetic diversity, recessive alleles are more likely to pair.  Paired non-lethal recessives often generate phenotypes with decreased biological fitness.  Recessive defective alleles are maintained in heterozygous (carrier) dogs within a population.  Genetic testing can screen for these “hidden” alleles, and reduce the likelihood of breeding animals with defective pairings. Eliminating all the…

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Ocular Herpes in Kittens

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Ocular Herpes in Kittens The feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) was first isolated in 1958. The virus can replicate within the conjunctival epithelia, upper respiratory tract epithelia, and sensory ganglia. Neuronal infection with FHV-1 establishes lifelong latency with intermittent re-activation and viral shedding. Virus transmission is commonly associated with exposure to acutely infected cats, or recrudescing latently infected cats. Environmental contamination with FHV-1 is not considered a significant route of transmission. The feline herpesvirus can be transmitted via oral, nasal, and/or conjunctival routes. Kittens under…

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A Review of Canine and Feline Oral Tumors

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by Dr. Daniel T. Carmichael (thank you to Jill Costigan for editorial advice) A Review of Canine and Feline Oral Tumors Key Points: There are a variety of neoplastic (cancerous) and non-neoplastic lesions that can be found in the oral cavities of dogs and cats. An accurate diagnosis is required to offer appropriate treatment recommendations Oral biopsy is a procedure that must be performed correctly to obtain an accurate diagnosis Regional lymph node evaluation is an important part of a complete diagnostic workup for oral malignancies The oral cavity is…

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Ophthalmoscopy

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Ophthalmoscopy To the casual observer a pupil appears black, even though there is a direct transparent pathway from a pupil to a colorful retina.  Ambient light enters an eye through its pupil at a multitude of different angles.  Some of this light is subsequently reflected by the retina, and exits the pupil in assortment of different angles.  The reflected light’s intensity (brightness) is usually below an observer’s threshold for perceiving a clear image of the retina, and this absence of light appears as…

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Blood in the Eye. Part 2. Secondary Systemic Conditions

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Blood in the Eye.  Part 2.  Secondary Systemic Disease Hyphema is hemorrhage, or bleeding, into the anterior chamber of the eye.  In the last newsletter, I discussed the main primary intraocular conditions (trauma, uveitis, cancer, and retinal detachment) which cause hyphema.  This article will discuss hyphema that arises secondary to systemic disease. The eye is often the first target organ to manifest hemorrhage in cases of systemic vascular or bleeding disorders.  This is due to an extremely high blood flow within the eye…

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Blood in the Eye. Part 1. Primary Intraocular Conditions

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Blood in the Eye.  Part 1.  Primary Intraocular Conditions Hemorrhage or bleeding into the anterior chamber of the eye is classified as hyphema.  The pathogenesis of hyphema is diverse, but a breakdown of the blood ocular barrier (BOB) and subsequent inflammation (uveitis) is usually involved.  Except in cases of severe intraocular disease, the differential diagnosis of hyphema does not differ from hemorrhage in other parts of the body (e.g.; hemoabdomen, pericardial hemorrhage).  Hyphema can arise secondary to systemic disease, or as a result…

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Antiglaucoma Medications

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Antiglaucoma Medications Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve in which retinal ganglion cells atrophy, often resulting in blindness (Figure 1).  Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for the development of glaucoma.  The key to glaucoma management is to determine its underlying cause.  Different etiologies require different treatments.  A veterinary ophthalmologist will explore both surgical and pharmaceutical options to reduce IOP.  This article will summarize the most common antiglaucoma medications used by a veterinary ophthalmologist to preserve vision in…

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