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Taking Care of your Pet’s Teeth at Home

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by Dr. Daniel T. Carmichael Taking Care of your Pet’s Teeth at Home The consequences of poor dental health go way beyond bad breath.  Periodontal infection can lead to serious health concerns ranging from tooth loss to organ failure.  It’s also no secret that dental problems are common in animals – studies have shown dental problems to be the most common problem in both dogs and cats, with periodontal disease at or near the top of the list.  When our animal patients receive good dental care, they undoubtedly live longer…

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Feline Dental Problems

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by Dr. Daniel T. Carmichael Feline Dental Problems Introduction Dental disease is common in domestic felines. In fact, dental problems are the most common disease that we see in cats, and many dental problems are painful. The most common sign of pain in cats, however, is no sign at all. By diagnosing and rendering appropriate treatment, we can eliminate pain and afford our feline patients a better quality of life. The vast majority of feline dental problem can be grouped into one of five disease categories: Periodontal disease, feline odontoclastic…

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Cataract Referral

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by Dr. Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO A cataract is any opacification of the lens.  Crystallins within lens fibers, or the lens fibers themselves, are disorganized within a cataract.  Ultimately, crystallin disorder decreases transparency or light transmittance.  Cortical cataracts are histologically associated with disordered, swollen, and ruptured lens fibers.  These ruptured fibers are not normally repaired.  In contrast, senile nuclear cataracts are characterized by disordered crystallins within dense but ordered fibers.  Cataracts have many etiologies including genetic, metabolic, environmental, and senility factors. Stages and Referral Cataracts can be classified…

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Canine Bacterial Keratitis – When Ulcers Go Bad

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by Dr. Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Canine Bacterial Keratitis – When Ulcers Go Bad The cornea is a transparent tissue lacking pigments, blood vasculature, and keratinized epithelia. These properties are essential for vision, but also make the cornea susceptible to infection. The tear film acts as a physical barrier to microrganisms, prevents microbial growth with lysozyme and lactoferrin, and provides nutrition to the corneal epithelium. The tear film is replenished by the lacrimal glands, adheres to the corneal epithelium via mucin of goblet cells, and reforms during blinking….

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Interventional Radiology Techniques

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by Dr. John Fondacaro, Diplomate ACVIM & Dr. Sean Hillock, Diplomate ACVIM Interventional Radiology Techniques (Offered at the Veterinary Medical Center of Long Island Internal Medicine Department)  Bronchoscopic intraluminal stents for tracheal collapse and other occlusive tracheal diseases. Urethral stents for obstructive urethral diseases. Transurethral submucosal collagen implantation. Since there is not an abundance of information about these procedures in the literature, the following general information will help you decide which patients may be possible candidates and allow you to adequately prepare owners prior to referral. Bronchoscopic intraluminal tracheal stents: Self-expanding…

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Cranial Curuciate Ligament Instability: Introducing the Tibial Tuberosity Advancement

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by Dr. Margret Puccio, DVM, Diplomate ACVS Cranial Curuciate Ligament Instability: Introducing the Tibial Tuberosity Advancement Cranial cruciate ligament injuries are one of the most common causes of acute and chronic lameness in dogs and are also seen as a cause of lameness in cats. Unstabilized cranial cruciate ligament tears place the patient at risk of meniscal damage and osteoarthritis of the stifle joint. It has been reported that up to 80% of patients will have concurrent meniscal tears and 40% of patients will rupture the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament…

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Genetic Testing in Veterinary Ophthalmology

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Genetic Testing in Veterinary Ophthalmology As discussed in an earlier article, the selective breeding of the canine has greatly diminished the genetic diversity within each specific breed.  In populations of low genetic diversity, recessive alleles are more likely to pair.  Paired non-lethal recessives often generate phenotypes with decreased biological fitness.  Recessive defective alleles are maintained in heterozygous (carrier) dogs within a population.  Genetic testing can screen for these “hidden” alleles, and reduce the likelihood of breeding animals with defective pairings. Eliminating all the…

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Ocular Herpes in Kittens

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Ocular Herpes in Kittens The feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) was first isolated in 1958. The virus can replicate within the conjunctival epithelia, upper respiratory tract epithelia, and sensory ganglia. Neuronal infection with FHV-1 establishes lifelong latency with intermittent re-activation and viral shedding. Virus transmission is commonly associated with exposure to acutely infected cats, or recrudescing latently infected cats. Environmental contamination with FHV-1 is not considered a significant route of transmission. The feline herpesvirus can be transmitted via oral, nasal, and/or conjunctival routes. Kittens under…

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A Review of Canine and Feline Oral Tumors

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by Dr. Daniel T. Carmichael (thank you to Jill Costigan for editorial advice) A Review of Canine and Feline Oral Tumors Key Points: There are a variety of neoplastic (cancerous) and non-neoplastic lesions that can be found in the oral cavities of dogs and cats. An accurate diagnosis is required to offer appropriate treatment recommendations Oral biopsy is a procedure that must be performed correctly to obtain an accurate diagnosis Regional lymph node evaluation is an important part of a complete diagnostic workup for oral malignancies The oral cavity is…

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Ophthalmoscopy

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Ophthalmoscopy To the casual observer a pupil appears black, even though there is a direct transparent pathway from a pupil to a colorful retina.  Ambient light enters an eye through its pupil at a multitude of different angles.  Some of this light is subsequently reflected by the retina, and exits the pupil in assortment of different angles.  The reflected light’s intensity (brightness) is usually below an observer’s threshold for perceiving a clear image of the retina, and this absence of light appears as…

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