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ViralWolf

Safer Diabetic Anesthesia during Ophthalmic Surgery

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Diabetic animals present unique anesthesia challenges to surgeons due to potential complications including hypovolemia, hyper or hypoglycemia, and autonomic dysfunction. Significant changes in the acid/base status and electrolytes of diabetic animals must be managed before, during, and after anesthesia. Various anesthetic agents can also affect insulin and/or glucose levels. Since many diabetic animals undergo cataract surgery, ophthalmologists may operate on more of them than other clinicians. This article will review the different complications of diabetic animal anesthesia and methods to restrict these outcomes. When a diabetic animal’s blood glucose level…

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Ocular Medication Compliance

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Client compliance with ocular and oral medications is a constant challenge and an essential component of any veterinary treatment plan. Most clients can adhere to a brief regimen of drug administration for their pets. However, persistent administrations of medications for months to years can be problematic. Typically, client compliance decreases as additional medications are added to a regimen, or as their frequency of administration is increased. There are a number of strategies for increasing compliance especially for clients administering multiple chronic medications to their pets. Medication adherence or (compliance) is…

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Non-healing Corneal Ulcerations in Dogs

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Dogs often present to ophthalmic services with superficial non-healing corneal ulcerations that have persisted for weeks or even months. These ulcers are also classified into various types including spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCEDs), indolent erosions or ulcers, and Boxer ulcers. Clinical signs of these chronic ulcers tend to wax and wane, confusing and frustrating both clients and veterinarians. Eyes with these ulcerations may also further deteriorate in their appearance due to corneal neovascularization and the development of granulation tissue. Traumatic events are a suspected etiology of many corneal ulcerations….

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Eyelid Masses – laser ablation, cryogenic therapy, and surgical resection

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Dogs frequently present with masses along the eyelid margin. Benign canine eyelid masses outnumber malignant ones at a ratio of 3 to 1. Most of these masses are tumors of the meibomian glands that line the eyelid margins and normally supply lipids (meibum) to the tear film. As dogs age and develop numerous sebaceous skin tumors, they are also more likely to develop these minimally invasive meibomian tumors. Meibomian tumors of the dog include epithelioma (originating from the epithelia lining the duct of the gland), sebaceous adenoma, and acinar adenocarcinoma…

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The Treatment of Immune-mediated Ocular Disorders

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The control of an immune-mediated ocular disorder typically requires chronic medications, regular follow-ups, and periodic diagnostic testing. This article presents routine guidelines used in the treatment of immune-mediated ocular disorders. The goal of any treatment program for an immune-mediated ocular disorder is complete remission prior to the tapering of any prescribed anti-inflammatories. High initial dosages of multiple medications are preferable to lower maintenance dosages. Adverse effects are not diminished by lower dosages of steroidal anti-inflammatories, but the efficacy of these drugs is. An initial course of low-dose therapy would therefore…

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Principles of Treating Immune-mediated and Inflammatory Ocular Diseases

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Many veterinary clients have a limited understanding and perception of what a disease in their pet actually entails. Typically, clients assume that a “disease” is caused by an infection (bacterial or viral), a malignancy, or physical trauma. With these assumptions are the ideas that infections can be cleared, malignancies resected or killed, and traumas repaired. However, and immune-mediated or imflammatory ocular disease lacking a specific etiology, and possibly requiring continuous management, is a more difficult for most clients to conceptualize. Unfortunately, many chronic degenerative and inflammatory ocular diseases are immune-mediated…

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