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Blood in the Eye. Part 2. Secondary Systemic Conditions

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Blood in the Eye.  Part 2.  Secondary Systemic Disease Hyphema is hemorrhage, or bleeding, into the anterior chamber of the eye.  In the last newsletter, I discussed the main primary intraocular conditions (trauma, uveitis, cancer, and retinal detachment) which cause hyphema.  This article will discuss hyphema that arises secondary to systemic disease. The eye is often the first target organ to manifest hemorrhage in cases of systemic vascular or bleeding disorders.  This is due to an extremely high blood flow within the eye…

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Blood in the Eye. Part 1. Primary Intraocular Conditions

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Blood in the Eye.  Part 1.  Primary Intraocular Conditions Hemorrhage or bleeding into the anterior chamber of the eye is classified as hyphema.  The pathogenesis of hyphema is diverse, but a breakdown of the blood ocular barrier (BOB) and subsequent inflammation (uveitis) is usually involved.  Except in cases of severe intraocular disease, the differential diagnosis of hyphema does not differ from hemorrhage in other parts of the body (e.g.; hemoabdomen, pericardial hemorrhage).  Hyphema can arise secondary to systemic disease, or as a result…

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Antiglaucoma Medications

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Antiglaucoma Medications Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve in which retinal ganglion cells atrophy, often resulting in blindness (Figure 1).  Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for the development of glaucoma.  The key to glaucoma management is to determine its underlying cause.  Different etiologies require different treatments.  A veterinary ophthalmologist will explore both surgical and pharmaceutical options to reduce IOP.  This article will summarize the most common antiglaucoma medications used by a veterinary ophthalmologist to preserve vision in…

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Enucleation

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Enucleation refers to the surgical removal of the entire eye.  This procedure is indicated for relatively few conditions that you and your client may face.  One cannot underestimate the attachment of an owner to the eye of their pet.  However, when necessary, enucleation can relieve suffering and prevent future maladies. Common indications for enucleation include blinding painful glaucoma, severe trauma, and intraocular malignancy.  The procedure, prosthetic options, and cosmetic effects should be well explained to the client.  Pictures of other enucleated animals can…

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“Can my dog watch TV?” Answers to Questions about Companion Animal Vision – Part 2

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO “Can my dog watch TV?” Answers to Questions about Companion Animal Vision – Part 2  In part 1 of this article, we reviewed color vision, light sensitivity and visual acuity in the dog.  This article will review canine depth perception, field of view, and motion detection.  I will also describe “flicker fusion” and how it relates to dogs watching television. Depth perception (sensation) To successfully interact with a 3-dimensional world, a mammalian visual system determines depth from visual cues within a 2-dimensional retinal image. …

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“Does my dog see in black and white?” Answers to Questions about Companion Animal Vision – Part 1

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by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO “Does my dog see in black and white?” Answers to Questions about Companion Animal Vision – Part 1 The mammalian eye is a device for collecting and focusing light, for distinguishing between different wavelengths and intensities, and for converting that information into electrical impulses that are sent to the brain.  Eyes evolved independently in various ecological niches creating species-specific morphologies.  In general, an eye conferred a selective survival advantage to an individual, and therefore a reproductive advantage in a population. Humans are the most…

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