Veterinary Articles

The Treatment of Immune-mediated Ocular Disorders

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The control of an immune-mediated ocular disorder typically requires chronic medications, regular follow-ups, and periodic diagnostic testing. This article presents routine guidelines used in the treatment of immune-mediated ocular disorders. The goal of any treatment program for an immune-mediated ocular disorder is complete remission prior to the tapering of any prescribed anti-inflammatories. High initial dosages of multiple medications are preferable to lower maintenance dosages. Adverse effects are not diminished by lower dosages of steroidal anti-inflammatories, but the efficacy of these drugs is. An initial course of low-dose therapy would therefore…

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Principles of Treating Immune-mediated and Inflammatory Ocular Diseases

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Many veterinary clients have a limited understanding and perception of what a disease in their pet actually entails. Typically, clients assume that a “disease” is caused by an infection (bacterial or viral), a malignancy, or physical trauma. With these assumptions are the ideas that infections can be cleared, malignancies resected or killed, and traumas repaired. However, and immune-mediated or imflammatory ocular disease lacking a specific etiology, and possibly requiring continuous management, is a more difficult for most clients to conceptualize. Unfortunately, many chronic degenerative and inflammatory ocular diseases are immune-mediated…

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Taking Care of your Pet’s Teeth at Home

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by Dr. Daniel T. Carmichael Taking Care of your Pet’s Teeth at Home The consequences of poor dental health go way beyond bad breath.  Periodontal infection can lead to serious health concerns ranging from tooth loss to organ failure.  It’s also no secret that dental problems are common in animals – studies have shown dental problems to be the most common problem in both dogs and cats, with periodontal disease at or near the top of the list.  When our animal patients receive good dental care, they undoubtedly live longer…

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Feline Dental Problems

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by Dr. Daniel T. Carmichael Feline Dental Problems Introduction Dental disease is common in domestic felines. In fact, dental problems are the most common disease that we see in cats, and many dental problems are painful. The most common sign of pain in cats, however, is no sign at all. By diagnosing and rendering appropriate treatment, we can eliminate pain and afford our feline patients a better quality of life. The vast majority of feline dental problem can be grouped into one of five disease categories: Periodontal disease, feline odontoclastic…

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Cataract Referral

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by Dr. Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO A cataract is any opacification of the lens.  Crystallins within lens fibers, or the lens fibers themselves, are disorganized within a cataract.  Ultimately, crystallin disorder decreases transparency or light transmittance.  Cortical cataracts are histologically associated with disordered, swollen, and ruptured lens fibers.  These ruptured fibers are not normally repaired.  In contrast, senile nuclear cataracts are characterized by disordered crystallins within dense but ordered fibers.  Cataracts have many etiologies including genetic, metabolic, environmental, and senility factors. Stages and Referral Cataracts can be classified…

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Canine Bacterial Keratitis – When Ulcers Go Bad

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by Dr. Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO Canine Bacterial Keratitis – When Ulcers Go Bad The cornea is a transparent tissue lacking pigments, blood vasculature, and keratinized epithelia. These properties are essential for vision, but also make the cornea susceptible to infection. The tear film acts as a physical barrier to microrganisms, prevents microbial growth with lysozyme and lactoferrin, and provides nutrition to the corneal epithelium. The tear film is replenished by the lacrimal glands, adheres to the corneal epithelium via mucin of goblet cells, and reforms during blinking….

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