Veterinary Articles

Non-healing Corneal Ulcerations in Dogs

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Dogs often present to ophthalmic services with superficial non-healing corneal ulcerations that have persisted for weeks or even months. These ulcers are also classified into various types including spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCEDs), indolent erosions or ulcers, and Boxer ulcers. Clinical signs of these chronic ulcers tend to wax and wane, confusing and frustrating both clients and veterinarians. Eyes with these ulcerations may also further deteriorate in their appearance due to corneal neovascularization and the development of granulation tissue. Traumatic events are a suspected etiology of many corneal ulcerations….

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Eyelid Masses – laser ablation, cryogenic therapy, and surgical resection

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Dogs frequently present with masses along the eyelid margin. Benign canine eyelid masses outnumber malignant ones at a ratio of 3 to 1. Most of these masses are tumors of the meibomian glands that line the eyelid margins and normally supply lipids (meibum) to the tear film. As dogs age and develop numerous sebaceous skin tumors, they are also more likely to develop these minimally invasive meibomian tumors. Meibomian tumors of the dog include epithelioma (originating from the epithelia lining the duct of the gland), sebaceous adenoma, and acinar adenocarcinoma…

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The Treatment of Immune-mediated Ocular Disorders

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The control of an immune-mediated ocular disorder typically requires chronic medications, regular follow-ups, and periodic diagnostic testing. This article presents routine guidelines used in the treatment of immune-mediated ocular disorders. The goal of any treatment program for an immune-mediated ocular disorder is complete remission prior to the tapering of any prescribed anti-inflammatories. High initial dosages of multiple medications are preferable to lower maintenance dosages. Adverse effects are not diminished by lower dosages of steroidal anti-inflammatories, but the efficacy of these drugs is. An initial course of low-dose therapy would therefore…

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Principles of Treating Immune-mediated and Inflammatory Ocular Diseases

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Many veterinary clients have a limited understanding and perception of what a disease in their pet actually entails. Typically, clients assume that a “disease” is caused by an infection (bacterial or viral), a malignancy, or physical trauma. With these assumptions are the ideas that infections can be cleared, malignancies resected or killed, and traumas repaired. However, and immune-mediated or imflammatory ocular disease lacking a specific etiology, and possibly requiring continuous management, is a more difficult for most clients to conceptualize. Unfortunately, many chronic degenerative and inflammatory ocular diseases are immune-mediated…

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Taking Care of your Pet’s Teeth at Home

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by Dr. Daniel T. Carmichael Taking Care of your Pet’s Teeth at Home The consequences of poor dental health go way beyond bad breath.  Periodontal infection can lead to serious health concerns ranging from tooth loss to organ failure.  It’s also no secret that dental problems are common in animals – studies have shown dental problems to be the most common problem in both dogs and cats, with periodontal disease at or near the top of the list.  When our animal patients receive good dental care, they undoubtedly live longer…

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Feline Dental Problems

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by Dr. Daniel T. Carmichael Feline Dental Problems Introduction Dental disease is common in domestic felines. In fact, dental problems are the most common disease that we see in cats, and many dental problems are painful. The most common sign of pain in cats, however, is no sign at all. By diagnosing and rendering appropriate treatment, we can eliminate pain and afford our feline patients a better quality of life. The vast majority of feline dental problem can be grouped into one of five disease categories: Periodontal disease, feline odontoclastic…

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