Veterinary Articles

Equine Recurrent Uveitis

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

Recurrent equine uveitis that arises every 3 to 4 months, and that requires longer durations of treatment with each occurrence, can result in debilitating ocular complications including glaucoma and blindness. [More]


Uveal Cysts – When to Worry

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

The formation of a uveal, or iris, cyst is a common occurrence in dogs. Canine uveal cysts are usually benign, but they can also be an initial sign of a progressive blinding disease know as pigmentary uveitis. In contrast, feline uveal cysts have been documented solely as benign with a breed predispostion for older Burmese cats. This article will describe the typical characteristics of uveal cysts, uveal melanoma (an ocular and sometimes life-threatening cancer), and iris atrophy (a benign age- and breed-related condition). Potential secondary complications (e.g. uveitis, glaucoma, and cataracts) will also be discussed. [More]


Prolapse of the Lacrimal Gland of the Third Eyelid

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

When medications do not succeed in lowering IOP, Prolapse of the lacrimal gland of the third eyelid is a common condition in the canine. Studies have shown that up to seventy-five percent of these prolapses occur within the first year of a dog’s life. Clinically, a prolapse is a red-colored follicular mass that protrudes from the margin of the nictitating membrane (a “cherry eye”). [More]


Glaucoma Surgery and Preserving Vision

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

When medications do not succeed in lowering IOP, surgical procedures can be performed to reduce aqueous production, or to direct aqueous fluid away from the eye. This article will describe surgical procedures that decrease the progression of ganglion cell death by reducing IOP. [More]


Glaucoma and Circadian Rhythms

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

Circadian IOP changes, head position (seated vs. supine), and blood flow can affect ocular perfusion. In humans increased mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) is associated with the progression of glaucoma. [More]


Promoting Corneal Health with Sera or Plasma

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

Ocular medications, sera, plasma, and platelet-rich plasma have been used to restore and/or supplement the healing properties provided by the tear film. This article will explore the use of blood derived products in promoting corneal health[More]


Ocular Pain

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

Many ocular diseases and disorders are associated with pain. Blepharospasm is an obvious manifestation of ocular discomfort. However, behavioral manifestations associated with an internal throbbing ocular pain are often unrecognized. [More]


Corneal Opacification – Corneal Infiltration

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

This is the fifth and final in a series of articles describing corneal opacifications. Corneal infiltrates are single or multiple discrete aggregations of yellow-white, white, or pink inflammatory cells that have invaded into a normally transparent cornea. [More]


Corneal Opacification – Corneal Fibrosis

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

This is the fourth in a series of articles describing corneal opacifications. There are several etiologies for corneal opacifications that do not stain with fluorescein. These include corneal pigmentation, fibrosis, calcium or lipid deposition, cellular infiltration, the presence of a foreign body, sequestrum, and/or edema. This article will concentrate on corneal opacifications arising from fibrosis (scarification). [More]


Corneal Opacification – Corneal Pigmentation

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

This is the third in a series of articles discussing corneal opacifications. There are several etiologies of corneal opacifications that do not stain with fluorescein. These include corneal pigmentation, fibrosis, calcium or lipid deposition, cellular infiltration, the presence of a foreign body, sequestrum, and/or edema. This article will concentrate on corneal opacifications arising from pigmentation[More]


Corneal Opacification – Corneal Lipid Deposition

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

This is the second in a series of articles discussing the causes of corneal opacifications. There are several possible differentials for corneal opacifications that do not stain with fluorescein. These include corneal pigmentation, fibrosis, calcium or lipid deposition, cellular infiltration, the presence of a foreign body, sequestrum, and/or edema. This article will concentrate on Corneal Opacifications due to Lipid Deposition. [More]


Ocular Melanoma

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

The most common primary intraocular tumor of both cats and dogs is melanoma typically presenting within the iris and/or ciliary body. In dog, ocular melanoma presents as a solitary lesion with a low potential for metastasis. In contrast, feline ocular melanoma is typically a diffuse lesion within the iris with a greater propensity for metastasis. [More]


Corneal Transparency

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

A consistent lattice-like arrangement of the stroma’s hydrated collagen fibers and the overall volume they occupy (fibril volume fraction) in the cornea is critical for the maintainance of corneal transparency. A proper fibril volume fraction reduces light scattering allowing for corneal clarity. [More]


Glaucomatous Pain

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

Animals with broken limbs typically display obvious signs of discomfort (crying, inappetence, aggressive behavior, etc.). These signs of pain are appreciated by most owners. However, most owners do not see the signs of pain in their pets afflicted with chronically enlarged glaucomatous eyes. Glaucoma is actually painful.

In humans elevated ocular pressures can lead to pain responses typically described as headaches emanating from indiscriminate locations. [More]


The Tear Film – The Outer Lipid Layer

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

This article is the third and final in a series concerning the ocular surface. The outermost lipid layer of the tear film provides a smooth ocular surface for proper light refraction and helps prevent the evaporation of the tear film. [More]


The Ocular Surface – The Tear Film

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

The tear film covers the entire ocular surface. The tear film’s volume is distributed across the eye so that approximately 1 μl lies across the exposed surface, 2.9 μl is found at the margins, and some additional volume is found beneath the eyelid. The tear volume is spread thinly across a much larger surface area which allows capillary forces to outweigh gravitational forces. Therefore, the tear film normally stays “attached” to the ocular surface. [More]


The Tear Film – The Glycocalyx and Mucin

by Noelle La Croix, DVM, Dip. ACVO

This article is the second in a series concerning the ocular surface. The tear film plays a critical role in the health of eye and a number of ocular disorders can affect the tear film. The tear film break-up time (TFBUT) test is used to analyze the stability of the tear film and its evaporative rate. [More]